Physical chemistry alberty pdf

In thermodynamics, work performed by a system is the energy transferred by the system to its surroundings, that is fully accounted for solely by macroscopic physical chemistry alberty pdf exerted on the system by factors external to it, that is to say, factors in its surroundings. 1824 by Sadi Carnot in his famous paper Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, where he used the term motive power for work. We use here motive power to express the useful effect that a motor is capable of producing. This effect can always be likened to the elevation of a weight to a certain height.

It has, as we know, as a measure, the product of the weight multiplied by the height to which it is raised. In 1845, the English physicist James Joule wrote a paper On the mechanical equivalent of heat for the British Association meeting in Cambridge. In this experiment, the friction and agitation of the paddle-wheel on the body of water caused heat to be generated which, in turn, increased the temperature of water. Thermodynamic work is performed by actions such as compression, and including shaft work, stirring, and rubbing.

A simple case is work due to change of volume against a resisting pressure. Work without change of volume is known as isochoric work, for example when an outside agency, in the surroundings of the system, drives a frictional action on the surface of the system. The amount of energy transferred as work is measured through quantities defined externally to the system of interest, and thus belonging to its surroundings. In an important sign convention, work that adds to the internal energy of the system is counted as positive.

Nevertheless, on the other hand, for historical reasons, an oft-encountered sign convention is to consider work done by the system on its surroundings as positive. For a closed thermodynamic system, the first law of thermodynamics relates changes in the internal energy to two forms of energy transfer, as heat and as work. Beyond the conceptual scope of thermodynamics proper, heat is transferred by the microscopic thermal motions of particles and their associated inter-molecular potential energies, or by radiation. For an open system, the first law of thermodynamics admits three forms of energy transfer, as work, as heat, and as energy associated with matter that is transferred. The latter cannot be split uniquely into heat and work components. In thermodynamics, the quantity of work done by a closed system on its surroundings is defined by factors strictly confined to the interface of the surroundings with the system and to the surroundings of the system, for example an extended gravitational field in which the system sits, that is to say, to things external to the system.

There are a few especially important kinds of thermodynamic work. The pressure of concern is that exerted by the surroundings on the surface of the system, and the volume of interest is the negative of the increment of volume gained by the system from the surroundings. It is usually arranged that the pressure exerted by the surroundings on the surface of the system is well defined and equal to the pressure exerted by the system on the surroundings. Another important kind of work is isochoric work, that is to say work that involves no eventual overall change of volume of the system between the initial and the final states of the process. When work is done by a closed system that cannot pass heat in or out because it is adiabatically isolated, the work is referred to as being adiabatic in character. Classically, a negative value of work indicates that a positive amount of work done by the system leads to energy being lost from the system.